Sunday, 15 January 2017

An interesting late guest for Christmas ‘dinner’

In a month where Christmassy things take over, birds were the highlight for the first half of December.  Waxwings from last month continued to test me out as I tried to find a few that would stay still long enough for a decent photo (none did!) and it was whilst out on the 2nd that I realised Janet and myself had made a big mistake.  A week earlier there had been a report of a hawfinch via someone visiting the pop-up-shop in the chalet and whether failing to make enquiries or, not too sure about the report, I didn’t react.  My outing on the 2nd failed to find the local flock of waxwings but I did meet up with John who told me that there had been 14-16 hawfinches feeding in bird cherry trees by the River Spey in Grantown, Doh!  As I got there late morning a couple of birders told me that they had seen just one bird about half an hour earlier, so I wandered down the track to see if it was still there.  I was told to keep an eye on the berry-rich hawthorns, bird cherries and the tops of the 
Single hawfinch on branch by main stem, mid-picture, honestly!
adjacent larches.  As I waited a dipper was singing from a rock in the river and overhead flew fieldfares and redwings.  Some of the latter had me checking the top of the larches pretty intently until I was sure of what they were.  After about an hour, 2-3 chaffinches landed in the top of the larches and, just below them, was a bird that looked a little bit bulkier and with the wee Panasonic camera set at its maximum of x30 zoom, I fired away in the hope of checking which species once home.  And that was it, so after another half hour I gave up.  The bird at the top of the larch was indeed a hawfinch – a mega-tick!  A few days later I got a call to say there were about the same number of hawfinches in bird cherry trees by the footbridge over the River Nethy.  However, my mid-afternoon visit failed to find any and the folk who had been watching the Grantown birds said they 
The flock top and the ones feeding in the rowan tree
often disappeared from about half-two.  A visit first thing next day failed to find anything but reports later that day said they were still there.  I have to thank the hawfinches for what happened next.  My Sunday morning breakfast was quite early and, with cameras loaded in the car I set off to see what I could find.  As I drove towards the post office and football pitch a huge flock of birds suddenly wheeled overhead making me screech to a halt, hop out of the car and marvel at the 300 or so calling waxwings circling around.  (I've just done an accurate count of the birds just in the top photo and there are 462 so there had to be a minimum of 500-600 in the flock). For a few seconds they perched in birches at the back of the houses, then some would dive down to a small pool just off the road to snatch a drink, then regularly a mass of them landed in a tiny garden rowan tree to feed on the berries before taking off almost as quickly as they had landed.  What a sight.  Just as quickly as they had appeared they were off again, heading towards the post office where I gather they appeared on and off for the morning.  However, it was hawfinch time and I drove up to the footbridge to at last be greeted by 4-5 hawfinches, briefly feeding in the bird cherries and regularly perching up at the top of the larch trees where I gather from one of the other birders, they were also feeding on larch seeds.  Within half an 
The Nethy hawfinches
hour there were about 10 folk all wanting to see the birds and it was fairly obvious that with so many people close to some of the smaller cherry trees with lots of berries, the birds were going to stay high up and outside the range of decent photos.  A wander round the roads where more cherry trees were still showing berries failed to find the birds so time for home.  However, knowing the River Nethy quite well between the village and RSPB Forest Lodge, I wondered if there might be more, or the same birds, feeding in the cherry trees so that is where my afternoon outing took me.  Bingo! 12 birds together plus a further 2 found in a big stand of bird cherries about 1 km from the footbridge, so probably the same flock.  Despite remaining completely motionless, within five minutes the birds were off, perhaps to go to roost or just to feed in another group of trees.  No decent photos but so nice to catch up with these very rare visitors to this part of the world.

As I waited around to see if the birds would return I wondered about the value of the wizened bird cherry fruits as food.  The juicy outer part of the berry has lost most of its food value by this time of year and it is the inner cherry stone that these birds are feeding on.  Out of interest, I grabbed a few 
Bird cherry dried old fruits
low-down berries and using my pretty sharp pocket knife tried to cut through the cherry stones whilst they were lying on a dried log.  They were incredibly hard and difficult to cut through.  The first one had nothing inside the cherry stone but the next two were obviously fertile and both contained the nutritious seed the birds were seeking.  Amazingly, all the parts of the cherry fruits have names; the 
Bird cherry fruit top and same one cut in half showing the seed
black outer skin when the cherry is ripe is the exoparp, the juicy fleshy layer the mesocarp, the woody outer layer of the cherry stone the endocarp which protects the single seed.  Having tried cutting these seeds the hawfinches must have amazingly strong beaks.  A few days later I was picking up the grandsons in Aviemore when again, a flock of around 300 waxwings were wheeling overhead, perching in trees, visiting a small garden pool to drink and with huge numbers landing in tiny rowan trees to feed.

I’m not sure what the birds, plants and animals think about our current weather patterns.  Twice during December we have seen temperatures one day well below freezing and the next slightly balmy.  We had -11oC on the 5th and +120C on the 7th, and -40C on 24th and +110C on the 25th!  Bulbs have been appearing in gardens and by our backdoor yellow flowers of the winter jasmine came out early in the month when usually it is well into the new year before this happens.  Mistle 
thrush has been heard singing, and rooks in the village have been in attendance at their rookery.  With Christmas Day past and the meat removed from the turkey breast Janet asked me hang up the bones in the apple tree for the birds to peck at.  All the other bits that had fallen off were left on the lawn.  Early afternoon Janet shouts “There’s a buzzard in the garden eating the turkey bits!” and sure enough this brave (or starving/ill) bird had come in and was scoffing the skin and bits of meat that were lying on the ground.  A first for the ‘in garden’ bird list.  Next day I cut down the turkey bones and left them on the ground but we didn’t see the buzzard return, however the evening pine marten and visiting cat had good feeds.

In the October blog in 2013 I highlighted a threat to the existence of the Kincraig U5s Playgroup which daughter Ruth ran at the time.  The playgroup meet in the church hall and, being a ‘forest school’ type group a part of most days is spent outdoors, particularly in an adjacent woodland known as The Knoll.  Prior to this application by local builder Allan Munro, five houses had already been built, claiming about half of the original woodland area, with the then current planning application wanting three more right in the heart of the remaining wooded area.  With the potential loss of mature oaks and birches I objected on conservation grounds and the playgroup did the same highlighting the 
The Knoll from 1st planning application showing
woodland lost to housing by 2013
loss of amenity woodland (as listed by Highland Council) and the threat to the existence of the playgroup.  There were many objections and the application was withdrawn.  2014.  A planning application is made for four terraced houses in woodland on the side of The Knoll (14/04702/FUL if you want to check Highland Council Planning) which again had potential implications for amenity and the playgroup.  As with most of these ‘controversial’ planning applications it was made on 17 Dec 2014, as everyone prepares for Christmas/New Year.  The application was withdrawn possibly on the advice of the Planners who suggested it wouldn’t succeed.  2015.  Another application for almost the same four house on the side of The Knoll (15/03930/FUL), a big outcry, playgroup leaders and children photographed with banners on the Knoll asking “Save our Playgroup” and eventually the Council refuse the application.  There is an appeal and on 16 Dec 2015 this is also turned down.  
An aspen leaf gall which the Playgroup children saw when I was out with them
2016.  Yes, sadly there’s more, and this is in the Cairngorms National Park!  “16/05110/FUL.  Proposed 3 no terraced houses.  Amenity Woodland East Of The Knoll Kincraig” by Agents for Allan Munro Construction Ltd. 05/12/2016.  Is this a case of who will give in first, the objectors or the developer?  This site isn’t in the Local Plan for housing but a large field about quarter of a mile away is.  So, once again the playgroup leaders are having to make a case as to why this shouldn’t happen and once again the local planning officials have to devote yet more time to consider and make a decision.  Since the application our local SNP Members of the Scottish Parliament (MSP) Kate Forbes has stated that people and housing should come before badgers and slow worms so we will see what influence that has on the planning decision.  Hopefully the people in this case are the young, playgroup members.

Aspens have taken up a bit of my time this month – so what’s new!  I was invited to be one of a team of folk to assist the Cairngorms National Park staff develop plans for getting our aspen woods into favourable condition and the part that farm woodland might play in the process.  The first meeting highlighted the difficulties that would need to be overcome mainly related to woodland and farm grants with much of the aspen woodland occurring on land possible linked to one or either of these.  However, this is a start and hopefully positive progress can be made.  Something like this might also help raise awareness of the importance of aspen woods for the species they support and help stop the senseless damage done to the ancient woodland stand at Spey Bridge as covered in an earlier blog.  I 
Mindless destruction - the ancient hazel tree
hadn’t fully realised the extent of this damaging work until I walked back homewards from leaving the car for its MOT in the garage next to the Spey Bridge wood.  The same tidying up work continued for about one-kilometre from the bridge and as I reached the estate boundary one of the last trees I found to have been completely cut down was an ancient, multi-stemmed hazel which instinct told me would have been important for something.  I took a GPS reading so I could check once home.  Sure 
The blackbirds nest
enough it was home to a blackbirds nest when I last visited it along with the rare local lichens Lobaria scrobiculata, Nephroma parile, Peltigera collina and the wee fungus Plicatura crispa.  So, so sad.  Members of the local Badenoch and Strathspey Conservation Group had also made contact to see if I would like to join them when they had an outing with another MSP John Finney (Green Party).  John had recently agreed to be the Scottish Parliaments ‘Aspen Champion’, one of 69 of the 129 MSPs who have become Species Champions for some of Scotland’s rare or threatened wildlife.  We met John in Carrbridge and in the time allowed, drove to Grantown on Spey to see the Spey Bridge aspens, where, looking into the wood from the opposite side of the River Spey, we were able 
John Finney in Spey Bridge aspens and Gus giving information
to show the very distinct ‘punk hairstyle’ shape of the tops of the mature trees.  Visiting the woods also allowed time to discuss the damage done and how this might be addressed in the future.  We then travelled on to a second stop where I was able to show John a couple of the rarer aspen lichens and where we could see some new suckers growing up from the mature trees roots whilst also seeing the site stocked with sheep which stopped the young trees growing to become mature trees.  A lot to see and take in but hopefully we managed to sow a few thoughts that John can discuss and raise in the parliament when opportunities arise. 

Following on from the meeting with the Park staff I met with Anne at Scottish Natural Heritage (SNH) to see how information of the rarer species (currently lichens, aspen hoverfly and two rare mosses) could be assembled to identify the ‘key’ stands where getting new trees established was urgent to try and ensure the future of these rare species.  In addition to this the distribution map of aspens within Badenoch and Strathspey that I was involved in with ground truthing work until just over a year ago, could be used to show where linking small aspen stands might be a possibility, mainly by planting.  The survey of the aspens to look for rarer mosses was done way back in 2003 so 
The recently fallen ancient aspen tree
The old jackdaws nest
I was keen to know if the trees supporting them still survived, particularly where the moss population was restricted to just a few trees and where they had been found in some of the smaller stands.  Eventually I tracked down a copy of the report and, using grid references and excellent photos of the trees supporting the mosses, I made my first re-survey visit to where else but the Spey Bridge aspens.  I knew one small tree with the moss had been removed at this site, but how had the others fared?  This first outing was on the 27th and I was saddened to see that yet another of the leviathan aspens had fallen, brought down during the Boxing Day gales.  I could see that the core of the tree was riddled with the tell-tale strands of ‘boot-laces’ linked to honey fungus (Armillaria species) so it had been on its way out for quite some time.  I had known this tree for many years as it supported a huge population of the pinhead lichen Sclerophora pallida, and smaller populations of Sclerophora peronella and the script lichen Schismatomma graphidioides.  With the tree now lying on the ground 
Orthotrichum obtusifolium, dry (top) and wetted (bottom)
I could see that the first pinhead was also growing 8 and 10 metres up the tree both groups associated with an old ‘canker’ growth which, over time, had created a hollow section of tree used annually by nesting jackdaws and starlings.  The tree trunk also produced the first ‘real’ find of the day, the rare moss I had come to find on other trees, Orthotrichum obtusifolium.  This hadn’t been recorded previously because it was also above head height, 4 metres up the tree.  I was aware of the location of two of the known Orthotrichum trees but the rest of the day was spent sorting out the other four, mostly from the photos, though the moss was only found on two of them.  However, one of the trees was also home to lots of one of the commoner mosses so more work will probably be needed to find the rare one.  Park staff and SNH were also contacted to ensure the estate don’t return to ‘tidy up’ once again and deprive any surviving aspen hoverflies of a place to breed.  All their previous ‘homes’ had been removed or burnt.

At long last I made an outing to a place I had seen that looked very interesting whilst undertaking aspen survey work mentioned earlier.  This was an area of consolidated shingle by the spate-prone River Dulnain west of Carrbridge and on the walk in I was determined not to stop by any of the aspens but when I saw unusual ‘stuff’ growing on many juniper bushes, I just had to stop, record and 
Lungwort on juniper
photograph the lichens I was finding.  The most unusual for a juniper bush was lungwort (Lobaria pulmonaria) and there was quite a bit of Nephroma laevigatum.  Eventually I descended down to the river and started my systematic walking back and forth across the shingle and almost immediately I found what I was hoping for, the amazingly-named ruffled freckled pelt(!) but officially called Peltigera leucophlebia.  I have found this lichen quite regularly on river shingle and had already 
Peltigera leucophlebia as normally found (top) and fertile (bottom)
found it elsewhere on this river, but usually in small amounts.  The first find was quickly doubled and the next patch was actually fertile, something not too common with this lichen.  The lines of walking continued and as daylight started to fade (must set off earlier next time) about half of the shingle had been walked and an amazing 20 patches of the lichen had been found with several of them fertile.  A site to re-visit and one to tempt the lichen experts to visit also.

Christmas day was great, all the family over, lots of presents to open, great food (thank you Janet and Ruth), lots of good chat, Lego, Pok√©mon and Minecraft to learn about and a good time had by all.  Last diary entry on 25th – ‘knackered’.  Diary entry 26th – ‘finish washing up + recovery. Paper from shop. 1-2” snow.  TV’!
 
Ready, steady -
GO!
All the best enjoy the read

Stewart and Janet

Hawfinch information
Firwood blog & Knoll planning application
MSPs Species Champions
Badenoch and Strathspey Conservation Group
Mapmate recording database
NBN Gateway
Fungal Records Database of Britain and Ireland (FRDBI)
BSBI – Botanical Society of the British Isles
Highland Biological Recording Group (HBRG)
and how to join HBRG

 
Curlew Findhorn Bay
 
Squirrel says "Must try harder next time"!
That's it for 2016 - what will 2017 bring?
 Photos © Stewart Taylor

Thursday, 22 December 2016

Up north, down south, waxwings and Windows 10

The early part of November saw me putting my final modifications to a PowerPoint presentation to be given to the Tain and District Field Club held over from March following my prostate op.  Quite timely because facts and figures for another summer could be added for work with butterflies, orchids and BSBI plant recording.  At the same time, final touches were added to an article on sedge smuts (Anthracoidea fungi) for Field Mycology and arrangements made with Emma at the Boat of Garten Community Hall for the first ever meeting this far south for the Highland Biological Recording Group’s AGM.  A visit to Tulloch on the 2nd saw me in some aspen/oak woodland that had somehow evaded earlier visits, being tucked away behind glacial moranic type topography close to the moor 
Plicatura crispa on dead hazel branch
road.  I couldn’t find any knopper galls on the acorns or anything unusual on the aspens but the hazel bushes had the dainty little bracket fungus Plicatura crispa, but it was the mass of stones at the edge of one field that provided the biggest surprise.  Around many farm fields locally you can find heaps of stones which possibly date back to the late 1700s to early 1800s when the land was ploughed for 
Nephroma parile lichen on field clearance rocks
the first time.  They are often referred to as stone/field clearance heaps.  As ploughing techniques and equipment improved these heaps were probably added to but few that I see have been added to in recent times.  Lots of plants pop up from amongst the stones but this heap was particularly large and not heavily grown into by plants and grasses.  However, it was the tops of the stones that had 
Birch shieldbug
Scarlet waxcap
something unusual: good populations of a lichen which locally I often associate with trees, Nephroma parile.  The lichen handbook states “On bark and mosses, characteristic of old woodlands, also rarely on sheltered, mossy , coastal rocks.”  A good find.  A fallen hazel limb had a birch shieldbug (Elasmostethus interstinctus) wandering over it and as I made my way back to the car, a group of scarlet waxcaps (Hygrocybe coccinea) indicated a patch of good, natural grassland.

A couple of days later and I was off early and with a talk in Tain in the evening I thought I would make the most of the day and head a little further north to visit the Spinningdale oak wood.  After sorting out the location of the evening talk in Tain I headed north across the Dornoch Firth Bridge with amazing views inland as well as out to sea.  As I left the bridge the sand dune habitat caught my eye and, with a convenient layby to hand, I pulled in, donned my wellies and hopped over the fence to check the gorse covered dunes.  From the car the habitat looked very similar to parts of Findhorn 
Moor club fungus (Clavaria argillacea)
Peltigera malacea
Bay and with that in my mind I was hopeful of finding something unusual.  With gorse covering large tracts of the dunes though there were few open sandy areas so I wandered back towards the bridge where open sands had been visible.  Despite looking like open sandy habitat from the car the surface was covered with dense population of a common lichen Cladonia portentosa, one of two lichens known as the reindeer lichen, leaving little room for much else to grow.  However, another interesting lichen was found Cetraria islandica but the one I was hoping for couldn’t be found.  As I made my way back towards the road an open sandy area appeared, almost below the road and having first spotted a tall club-like fungus (Clavaria argillacea), something that looked like what I was hoping for, Peltigera malacea was also growing.  The distribution maps show it to be present close to my find but with the whole area being part of the Dornoch Firth SSSI I’ve no doubt it might be present in other areas of suitable habitat throughout the dunes.  However, the oak woods were calling so time to 
An old oak apple (Biorhiza pallida)
Acorns but no knopper galls
move on via the A949.  As I drove along the road I thought there would be lots of areas to pull over on but there wasn’t. Eventually a bit of space became available and I pulled over.  Either side of the road there were mature oaks so I decided to work my way up the slope to start with.  A few fallen oak leaves had spangle galls (Neuroterus quercusbaccarum) and cherry galls (Cynips quercusfolii) on them and occasionally fallen oak apples (Biorhiza pallida) were found, well past their best and with all the tiny gall wasps probably having emerged.  Once again though, no knopper galls were found which was a pity as that would have been the furthest north record for the gall wasp in the UK.  I should really have taken my binoculars with me and tried scanning the trees because there were few 
Schismatomma graphidioides lichen on oak tree
acorns on the ground.  Time to start staring at the tree trunks and, quite quickly, I found the script lichen Schismatomma graphidioides on two oaks.  Would it be new to that area?  Hard to believe but it had been recorded twice before and only from almost the same location!  Crossing the road, I made my way down to the sea shore just in time for the late afternoon fly-past of greylag geese but overall it had been quite a quiet day for birds.  Probably the strangest find on the rocky shore was a big 
Dornoch Cathedral - early evening and all lit up 
tussock of lyme grass, (Leymus arenarius) probably washed there after one of the winter storms but having said that, there are very few records for this plant in that general area with none in the Dornoch dunes visited earlier in the day.  With darkness falling it was time to nip into Dornoch for a bite to eat before heading back to Tain to give my talk

As the industrialisation of our remoter, wildland areas increases it was well done – almost, to the John Muir Trust.  A year ago I joined the John Muir Trust (JMT) to support their efforts to stop a wind farm development in the heart of the Monadhliath Mountains near Loch Ness/Fort Augustus.  But to start, let’s wind back the clock to 2013 when Scottish Natural Heritage (SNH) produced a draft Consultation Paper covering the Core Areas of Wild Land 2013.  One of the ‘wild land’ areas comprised a part of the Monadhliath Mountain area where, a year later, an application for the Stronelairg wind farm would be made.  Something very strange then occurred.  When the final Wild 
An accurate map of the Stronelairg windfarm recently given planning permission.
Turbines red dots and tracks in brown. Courtesy of John Muir Trust Journal
Land map was produced (Wild Land Areas 2014) the area comprising the wind farm application had been removed because the then Scottish Government Energy Minister Fergus Ewing, had approved the application.  Can you start to smell something?  The SSE wind farm application made national news when it was made because of the sheer scale of what was being proposed, 67 turbines, mostly 135m high and covering an area of around 35 square kilometres in a remote Highland landscape.  The original application had been for 83 but Highland Council planning officials made a recommendation that no objection would be lodge but only on condition that the development was reduced to 67 turbines!  Had Highland Council objected to the application a Public Local Inquiry (PLI) would have been triggered and this would have brought in to play a more serious assessment of the environmental impact.  The smell is getting stronger!  At that time, in 2013, the JMT initiated a judicial review against Highland Council but unfortunately were refused a Protective Expenses Order (PEO) meaning they could have been left with a huge bill that they just couldn’t afford.  At the time of the application there were many objectors, including the Scottish Governments nature conservation arm, SNH which you would have thought would have produced a PLI.  But no, and on 6 June 2013 the Scottish Government approved the application.  Pass me that peg!  Having found what they considered several flaws in the application and decision making process JMT took out a judicial review against the Scottish Government.  However, the developer, Scottish and Southern Energy (SSE) joined the case as an ‘interested party’ meaning JMT would have to face two sets of lawyers increasing the financial penalty should they lose the case.  Again, an application for a PEO was turned down.  To progress, JMT issued an appeal for funds and due to the generosity of its campaign supporters was able to continue with the case.  In December 2015 the judicial review judge found in favour of JMT.  Amazing!  There is though a ‘BUT’.  SSE and the Scottish Government appealed the ruling and JMT once again asked, unsuccessfully for a PEO to contest the appeal and, five months 
Same OS Map as above but without the industrialised landscape
The black rectangle shows the windfarm location on a smaller scale map
to try and give a reasonable impression of the remoteness of the site.
later, the judicial review decision was overturned and the plan to industrialise one of Scotland’s wild and remote areas of land was again on the cards.  More pegs please because something really does stink!  The Stronelarig Estate at the time of the application was owned by Charles Connell, who sadly died of heart failure in 2015, and may still be owned by the family.  When permission for the wind farm was given the go ahead in 2014 the Sunday Times revealed that the development would bring in up to £60million in profits to the estate.  Having followed this saga over the last few years it was quite interesting to see a comment in our local Strathspey and Badenoch Herald paper by Local Highland councillor Bill Lobban (SNP).  Currently, local folk have been objecting to two wind farm applications that will impinge on the ‘wild land’ area around the picturesque Lochindorb, and lying within the Drynachan, Lochindorb and Dava Moor Special Landscape Area.  One is still in the wind-mast trial stage but the other, despite the application being rejected by Highland Council and with 161 local objectors including the community councils of Carrbridge and Dulnain Bridge, the Scottish Government Reporter gave it the go-ahead.  Councillor Lobban summed up what many folk locally have been thinking.
"This decision is yet another insult to democracy.  Quite simply the planning process in Scotland is broken.  Allowing decisions to be taken by a single government employee rides roughshod over the democratic process and it is now high time that the Scottish Government realised that fact and made drastic changes to the whole system.  There is no point bleating on and on about local democracy when the views of local people and their democratically elected representatives are ignored time and time again."  Thank you Bill but pass me that gas-mask please.

Lots of excitement on the 14th when, walking back from the shop that familiar sound of tinkling bells sounded overhead – waxwings!  Daughter Laura had told me that there were a few hundred in Elgin but these were the first to be heard locally and when I caught up with them there were about 50 sitting at the top of a larch tree at the end of our road.  As I pointed them out to a neighbour the whole lot flew overhead and carried on in the Firwood direction.  I dashed home and in the hope that they 
Tree-top waxwings
And what they should look like courtesy of Craig Bell - wow!  
might be attracted, I cut up some of the fallen apples and laid them out white-side up on the lawn.  Nothing!  Next morning there were about 10 at the top of a tree across the road but that was it.  Our old rowan tree was hanging thick with berries but they weren’t tempted and it was a few days later that the redwings, fieldfares, blackbirds and the odd mistle thrush started to attack the crop.  No 
Fieldfare
Brambling
waxwings but lots of fun trying to get a decent photo of the thrushes devouring the rowan berries.  Watching the comings and goings it was interesting to list just how many birds were feeding on the berries.  There were the four species above plus a female brambling, chaffinches, bullfinches (2), goldfinch and, trying to feed on them a sparrowhawk.  The waxwings were found again near the Dell Road church and, with a hedge full of cotoneaster berries I had hopes of a low down rather than bright sky background photo.  No luck there.  During this period a new laptop was ordered and despite trying to stay with Windows 7 it wasn’t to be and the new machine arrived with all the junk 
Unlucky sparrowhawk - on this occasion
that accompanies Windows 10.  The simplicity of the older versions of PowerPoint and Publisher have been overtaken by newer ones which are trying to think for you and might eventually be learnt.  Word, excel and the email side seem to be okay but all with new quirky was of doing things and I’ve yet to get the Mapmate database moved over successfully.  I contacted Nikon to see if they could supply details as to how to install their pretty good NX2 photo software but they don’t do that for W10 and there is now a less powerful NX-D which doesn’t do the same tweaks that the older version did.  Why?  Currently the overheating old laptop continues with the Mapmate database and the old Nikon software and if that really does pack up and PC Specialists can’t mend, where do we go?  Both laptops were used to produce the last blog.

Weather.  13.80C on 15th and with a couple of night-time -70C, all day frosts and some snow on high ground.  It was cold enough towards the end of the month to freeze over most waterbodies and create amazing frost-scapes on some days.  Despite the day staying below freezing I managed to re-visit a section of the River Findhorn near to Logie Bridge to find the most amazing area of very old hazel 
Ancient ash and lungwort lichen
Leptogium saturninum lichen on ash tree
trees in amongst ancient ash and oak trees, all hanging thick with lungwort (Lobaria pulmonaria) and smaller numbers of textured lungwort (Lobaria scrobiculata), Degelia plumbea and two local rarities Collema fasciculare and Leptogium saturninum.  Some of the hazels have to be the oldest I’ve seen locally.  Perhaps the strangest pursuit though involved whisky and their distilleries!  A couple of months ago I was alerted to the fact that there was something called the ‘whisky fungus’ a Baudoinia species and that it was linked to the black, sooty deposits found on buildings and trees all around some distilleries.  Despite having been aware of this phenomenon during all the years driving past the distilleries I had never thought beyond the deposits being linked to the steam billowing out from the buildings during the whisky distilling process.  Murdo at the Highland Biological Recording Group alerted me to the fact that despite several studies having been done to confirm and identify the 
A typical steamy distillery - but don't blame the steam!
fungus, there was only one UK record!  He had visited a couple of distilleries north of Inverness, had collected some ‘soot’ and had had the fungus identity confirmed by an expert mycologist.  Close to home there are several distilleries in the Aberlour and Dufftown areas and it was to the first location that I set off to see what I could find.  The first site was Glenfarclas a few miles before Aberlour and despite being closed to visitors it was possible to drive up to the visitor car parking area and scan the buildings and trees, but no obvious deposits could be seen.  Just before Aberlour is the Carron 
The soot-like fungus found on hawthorn twigs at Aberlour distillery
Distillery, almost on the south bank of the River Spey and despite lots of steam pouring out of one of the buildings again, no deposits could be found.  So, on to Aberlour where the distillery is at the bottom of the hill as you reach the edge of the village.  I drove into the car park area and bingo, some bushes, trees and building were covered in the black deposit, so carefully I cut a bit of hawthorn twig complete with a mass of deposit and scraped a bit more into a plastic tube.  Every tree over quite a distance from the buildings was also covered, something typical of other sites I’d driven past.  Onward, this time to Dufftown and on the approach to the town all the trees were black.  This town is very well off for distilleries with five all within a mile or so of each other so possibly they all combine to create more deposits?  I parked the car and wandered along the road looking for suitable 
Baudoinia compniacensis (whisky fungus) under the microscope x400
Whisky fungus x1000 oil
deposits to take home to check by wandering between the Glen Fiddich and Diageo distilleries.  Despite the trees all being pretty black the deposits were nowhere near as thickly encrusted as at Aberlour but were plentiful enough to collect a couple of samples.  Job done, off home to see what the deposits looked like.  What I found under the microscope matched the details available on the internet so it looked like I was dealing with Baudoinia compniacensis.  As I was about to email Murdo with my results, complete with photos of the fungus and the steaming chimneys of the distilleries I thought I should read a little more about its history and recent research and it was only then that I realised that the fungus has got nothing to do with the steam!  When the distilling process is complete and the whisky is in the barrel (previously used oak Spanish sherry barrels are used at Glenfarclas for instance), to obtain the title of Scotch whisky, by law, the new spirit must be matured in oak casks, with a capacity no greater than 700 litres, in a warehouse in Scotland, for a minimum of three years.  This is known as maturation.  During this process 2% of the alcohol is lost due to evaporation via the pores in the wooden barrels and is known in the industry as “the angels share” and it is this airborne alcohol/ethanol that is responsible for the fungal growth.  Despite, until recently, there only being one UK record of this fungus, work on its identity started in 1872 by the French pharmacist Antonin Baudoin who checked the black, sooty growth found on the walls and roof tiles of buildings near distilleries in Cognac, France. Fascinating.

The most surprising birding event was least expected.  On one of the days that Janet wasn’t running her ‘pop-up-shop’ in the chalet, we headed for a day out at the coast in Nairn.  Our walk circuit took us from the town centre and out to the shore where we stopped for a few minutes to watch a partial 
Pale-bellied brent geese feeding and the locally ringed bird
rainbow develop over the sea.  Below us a group birds flew in and landed before starting to feed on the rocks, “they’re brent geese” I shouted to Janet, a bird I have very rarely seen previously.  As we watched the birds feeding more arrived, adding up to 47 in total, and as one group flew in I fired off a few shots of the camera to get a figure just in case the birds didn’t stop.  They did, and as I checked the photos on the camera I realised one of the birds coming in to land had rings on its legs.  As they were feeding they moved quite quickly along the rocky shore heading in the Ardersier direction.  A few enquiries once I got home dashed my hopes of the bird having been ringed in its breeding area (northern Greenland, Spitsbergen?) when the leader of the Highland Ringing Group informed me that a small number of birds winter each year along this part of the Moray coast and that they were responsible for adding the rings!  No matter, a very pleasant surprise on our day out.

Early in November we received the sad news that my Uncle Rob had died and mid-month I travelled down to Morecambe to be with other family members and friends to say cheerio to a man who had dedicated quite a lot of his working life to Scotland’s railways and latterly at the ferry port in Heysham.  The tiny station at Drumoak on the then Aberdeen to Ballater line is one of the places 
where he worked close to the Toll-gate cottage where he grew up.  Before its closure in 1966, the Royal Family were regular passengers as they made their way to Balmoral.  As a boy scout camping in Inverness and having travelled up from Lancashire, I was able to pay a surprise visit to Dalwhinnie where he was station master for many years, and when myself and Janet toured Scotland in our good old Ford Poplar, we again dropped in unannounced when he was doing the same job at Annan.  Our thoughts are with Grace, Shona, Graeme and family at this sad time.

With best wishes for the festive season and 2017

Stewart and Janet

SNH Core Areas of Wild Land 2013 Map Consultation Paper see Site 17 Monadhliath http://www.snh.gov.uk/docs/A1104206.pdf
Bill Lobban and Strathy article
Tain & District Field Club
Dornoch Firth SSSI
Dufftown Distilleries
Baudoinia compniacensis the whisky fungus
Mapmate recording database
NBN Gateway
Fungal Records Database of Britain and Ireland (FRDBI)
BSBI – Botanical Society of the British Isles
Highland Biological Recording Group (HBRG)
and how to join HBRG

 
Green shield-moss capsules as seen on the HBRG AGM outing
 
Hydnellum (ST) on BBC Scotland weather but
still a long way behind daughter Laura's successes!
 
It has been mild but also very frosty

Nethy Bridge old kirk sunset
Have a good Christmas
Photos © Stewart Taylor and © Craig Bell waxwing